Mycophenolic acid glucuronide
Immediately following collection, mix sample thoroughly by gentle inverting 8 - 10 times to prevent clotting
Ambient (preferred) - 14 days
Refrigerated - 14 days
Frozen - 14 days
Freeze/thaw cycles - stable x 3
Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS)
Mycophenolic acid: 1.0 - 3.5 µg/mL
Mycophenolic acid glucuronide: 15 - 125 µg/mL
Monitor theraputic levels; evaluate toxicity Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active metabolite of the prodrug, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Absorption of the prodrug is rapid following oral administration to the extent that detectable levels are not seen. Similar effects are observed after cessation of I.V. administration. Once formed, MPA undergoes metabolism to form the pharmacologic- ally inactive phenolic glucuronide metabolite, MPAG. In vivo, MPAG is converted to MPA via enterohepatic recircula- tion, which results in a secondary peak in the plasma concentration time profile. MPA and MPAG are 92% and 87% protein bound, respectively, at usual clinical concentrations.
Recent reports have suggested that there could be a potential pharmacokinetic drug interaction between MPA and the calcineurin inhibitors. Several groups have observed that, in combination with cyclosporine, MPA serum concentrations are lower, and the MPAG serum concentrations are higher than in combination with tacrolimus. MPA has also been implicated as an adjuvant with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to the selective inhibition of the conversion of inosine 5'-monophosphate to xanthosine 5'-monophosphate by the enzyme, inosine 5'-mono- phosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Blocking this enzyme in lymphocytes depletes guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) pools. This depletion of dGTP pools inhibits the activation of T lymphocytes, therebylimiting the availability of target cells for HIV.