Frozen (preferred) - 30 days
Refrigerated - 30 days
Ambient - 48 hours
Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)
An interpretive report will be included
Arbovirus is a term that refers to any virus transmitted by an arthropod (arthropod borne virus). Arboviruses include St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE), Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE), Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), and California Encephalitis (CE). These are the major mosquito-borne viruses causing human disease in the United States.
Infection by these viruses in humans induces an immune response and specific antibody production against the viral antigens. The majority of human cases are diagnosed by serologic means. Infections caused by arboviruses are mostly asymptomatic.
The most common clinically apparent manifestation is a mild undifferentiated febrile illness, usually with headache. Only a minority of infected individuals demonstrate central nervous system involvement, with the exception of a more abrupt onset and shorter, more severe course found with EEE.
Initial symptoms include headache, fever, malaise, and vomiting. Convulsions are less common in SLE than in CE, WEE, and EEE. Children and older adults are affected by these diseases more often and more severely. Fatality rates are approximately 10% for WEE and SLE, somewhat lower for CE, and 33% for EEE.
California Encephalitis group includes several viruses known to cause human disease in the United States
LaCrosse virus infection occurs in north-central States, primarily in the upper Mississippi River Valley.
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE) and western equine encephalitis virus (WEE) are within the Alphavirus group.
St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE) is a member of the Flavivirus group of Arbovirus. The family Flavivirus is a large, closely related group containing 23 members. The family’s most notable agents include SLE, dengue fever viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, and the Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus. Serological cross-reaction is common between SLE and other Flaviviruses, however, the extent and degree of cross-reaction varies.
In patients infected with these or related viruses, IgG antibody is generally detectable within 1 to 3 weeks of onset, peaking within 1 to 2 months, and declining slowly thereafter. IgM class antibody is also reliably detected within 1 to 3 weeks of onset, peaking and rapidly declining within 3 months. Both IgG and IgM antibody status should be determined at the onset of symptoms. In patients infected with arboviruses, IgG antibody is generally detectable within 1 to 3 weeks of onset, peaking within 1 to 2 months, and declining slowly thereafter. IgM class antibody is also reliably detected within 1 to 3 weeks of onset, peaking and rapidly declining within 3 months. Both IgG and IgM antibody status should be determined at the onset of symptoms.