Immediatley following collection, mix sample by gently inverting 5 times
Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)
Negative (< 1/64 titer for IgG and IgM)
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the highly infectious, virulent, non-sporulating gram-negative coccobacillus Francisells tularensis. It is found throughout most of the northern hemisphere in a wide range of animal reservoir hosts including mammals and birds. It is not known to be transmitted from one person to another. Epidemics can often be traced to concurrent epizootics involving rodents and other small mammals. In the past, tularemia was one of the most common laboratory acquired diseases. There are several tularemia syndromes in humans, most of them depending on the portal of infection. The clinical appearance ranges from skin lesions to multi-organ involvement. The severity varies with the dose inoculated and the virulence of the bacterium, which is related to the biotype. The usual incubation period is 3 to 5 days, although it can be as long as 21 days. In most cases, antibodies appear 6 to 10 days after the onset of symptoms, i.e., usually about 2 weeks after infection, reach their peaks at 4 to 7 weeks, and, despite decreasing in level, are still present 0.5 to 25 years later, probably even longer.